Greenhouse gas emissions

We maintain records of direct greenhouse gas emissions; data is verified and submitted to the authorized body on an annual basis. Organizations, listed in the National Allocation Plan of quotas, confirm installation passport and validate monitoring plan.

Calculation of greenhouse gas emissions is based on methodological guidelines for calculation of greenhouse gas emissions, approved by the authorized body, and cover following greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide (CO2); methane (CH4); nitrogen oxide (N2O); perfluocarbon (PFC).

State regulation of greenhouse gas emissions in the country is implemented by volume of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. According to the results of 2017, volume of carbon dioxide emissions in the Group of companies KMG was 6.57 million ton (6.53 million ton in 2016). A slight increase in emissions had happened due to expansion of reporting boundaries (17 SDEs – in 2017, 15 SDEs in 2016).

Greenhouse gas emissions by areas of activity, mln ton

* CO2 equivalent is measurement unit of global warming potential of greenhouse gases. Carbon dioxide is standard, by means of which other greenhouse gases are estimated. Global warming ratio for methane is 21 and 310 for nitric oxide in country’s methodologies. 

Despite the growth of hydrocarbon production and modernization of oil refineries, level of greenhouse gas emissions in СО2 eq. in the Company for the last 5 years is 5 % below the level of the base 2013, which is associated with reduction of gas flaring and, correspondingly, reduction of methane emissions, and implemented energy saving and efficiency measures. However, level of CO2 emissions in ton is 2 % higher than the base 2013 year.

Total emissions by kinds of greenhouse gases

 

2013

 

2014

2015

2016

2017

 

 

 

 

Greenhouse gases

thousand t

thousand t СО2 eqv.

thousand t

thousand t СО2 eqv.

thousand t

thousand t СО2 eqv.

thousand t

thousand t СО2 eqv.

thousand t

thousand t СО2 eqv.

СО2

6,420

6,420

5,850

5,850

6,027

6,027

6,527

6,527

6,569

6,569

CH4

178

4,131

142

3,195

149

3,132

147

3,062

163

3,391

N2O

0

33

0

20

0

106

0

88

1

77

PCFs

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Total:

6,598

10,584

5,992

9,064

6,176

9,266

6,675

9,678

6,732

10,037

 

Volume of direct greenhouse gas emissions by business area “Hydrocarbon production” was 2.57 million ton of CO2 in 2017, which is 2 % lower than the level of the previous year (2.62 million tons in 2016). Due to measures, taken for improvement of energy efficiency, indicator of CO2 emissions intensity decreases even in case of growth of volume of produced raw hydrocarbons.

Intencity of CO2 in exploration and production

Intensity of CH4 in explration and production

We began to calculate intensity of methane (CH4) emissions by business area “Hydrocarbon production” since the current year. Over the past 5 years, methane emissions have decreased by 30 %, but the intensity of emissions is still higher than industry average. Reduction of this indicator is expected according to implementation of measures on reduction of flaring.

Over the past two years the emission intensity has increased in the “Refinery” business direction owing to increased refinery yield.

Nowadays calculations of intensity on business area “Transportation” are not performed due to the fact that only one company is represented in the area of oil transportation, and volumes of GHG emissions and gas transportation volumes of presented organizations are not comparable in the area of gas transportation.

Intensity of emission in refining sector

Project on direct detection of methane leakages

In the result of pilot projects on detection and quantitative measurement of methane leakages at our production facilities together with the Environmental Protection Agency and Norwegian company “Carbon Limits” during 2015–2016, we entered the project network of Global Methane Initiative (GMI) in 2017. Upon the initiative of our Company, an introductory meeting of the representatives of the Global Methane Initiative (GMI) with the employees of the Ministry of Energy of the Republic of Kazakhstan and KMG subsidiaries and dependent entities was held in Astana. The Ministry of Energy of the Republic of Kazakhstan has entered the subcommittee of oil and gas of the GMI in 2017.

New projects on detection of methane leakages at new production facilities of the Company, as well as participation in the Global Methane Forum, are planned for continuation of cooperation, in 2018.

As part of modernization of oil refineries, a number of measures are being taken on reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, such as launch of vapor recovery unit, installation of floating lids on new tanks. Reduction of emissions will be also observed in the result of energy saving and energy efficiency measures, such as transfer of boiler houses from diesel fuel to gas, workload optimization of compressor stations with gas turbine drive, reconstruction of manufacturing equipment, transfer of vehicles (special equipment) to gas, installation zirconia sensors for determination of limit value of excess air (reduction of fuel losses from flaring in furnaces).

Case history

Greenhouse gas emission reduction.

Vapour recovery unit was put into operation for blocking of harmful emissions into the atmosphere during reconstruction of oil pumping station named after N. Shmanov of “KazTransOil” JSCC in Atyrauskaya oblast, which task is processing of light hydrocarbon vapours which are formed during the filling, transportation and storage of oil. In the result clean air is released into the atmosphere, while hydrocarbon particles are trapped and returned to the reservoir by means of usage of absorbing liquid.

Pre-commissioning and start-up of vapour recovery unit, related to vapour output devices from filling stands of oil loading rack of PKOP LLP in 2017.

As part of the modernization, Atyrau Refinery constructs automatic installation of on-spot loading of light oil products into rail tank cars with hydrocarbon gas recovery, which commissioning will allow reduction of hydrocarbons losses to the atmosphere during filling operations, and prevention of greenhouse gas emissions into the environment.

The Company does not release ozone-depleting substances, which impact on climate change, during its activity. Periodic monitoring and control are carried out.

Air quality

We conduct industrial environmental monitoring and take measures on reduction of emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere, formed in the result of operations and production processes.

Base stock of all pollutants emissions was 256 thousand ton (241 thousand ton in 2016) by the Group in 2017. Slight increase of emissions is observed due to commissioning of new sources. Bulk of atmospheric pollutant emissions is related to the transportation sector – 58 %, contribution of extraction and refining sectors – 22 % and 18 %, respectively.

Emissions are analyzed by sources since 2016.

 

2017

2016*

Electricity generation

5,013

4,643

Flaring

14,509

16,587

Other stationary sources

236,828

219,851

Total:

256,350

241,081

* Data for 2016 were recalculated in Sustainable Development Report for 2017, taking into account new production facilities (total amount of emissions is 173.4 thousand ton in the report for 2016).

Calculations of air pollutant emissions into the atmosphere are made on the basis of technical characteristics of the equipment, used in accordance with the current guidelines and recommendations on determination of air pollutant emissions into the atmosphere. We do not perform direct measurements using, for example, gas analyzers on a real time basis, however, universal transition to automated monitoring of air pollutant emissions by means of installation of sensors/gas analyzers at emission sources is planned by the authorized environmental protection agency within the country’s transition to digitalization. This issue is considered by users of natural resources. One of main emissions into the atmospheric air are sulfur oxides (SOx) and nitrogen oxides of (NOx).

Number of air pollutant emissions

The Company does not release persistent organic pollutants in its activity.

Average ratio of NOx emissions to total raw hydrocarbon production in oil equivalent by Group of companies KMG was 0.25 ton per thousand ton of raw hydrocarbon production in 2017, average IOGP indicator was 0.4. Compared to 2016, there is a slight increase in NOx emissions. Average ratio of SOx emissions to total raw hydrocarbon production in oil equivalent for Group of companies KMG was 0.32 ton per thousand ton of raw hydrocarbon production, average IOGP was 0.2. Compared to 2016, there is a reduction in SOx emissions.

Case history

Claus sulfur plant and tail gas treatment of Atyrau refinery.

Commissioning of new combined Claus sulfur plant and tail gas purification is of great importance in improvement of the environmental situation in “Atyrau Refinery” LLP and Atyrauskaya oblast, since oil, processed at the plant, has a high sulfur content. With the implementation of this project, sulfurated gas will be regenerated, which will reduce SO2 emissions into the atmosphere, while simultaneously production of important industrial products – commercial sulfur in Sulfur Granulation Unit.

Case history

Automatic installation of spot oil loading (AISL).

Automatic installation of spot oil loading unit (AISL), the first in Kazakhstan, was put into operation as part of the project “Modernization and Reconstruction of Shymkent Refinery” at Shymkent refinery (PetroKazakhstan Oil Products LLP), which was designed and built in accordance with the environmental requirements. Its technology provides air-proof oil loading by two separate points to oil tank cars with capacity 730 m3 h each through telescopic equipment, which prevents the release of hydrocarbon vapours into the atmosphere.

Also within the framework of the modernization, new diesel hydro-treater, sulfur production, and gas flare device have been commissioned to ensure safe removal of process gases. Pre-commissioning works are carried out at offplot facilities and naphtha isomerization installation, which allows obtaining of super gasoline. Emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere have decreased on 1,089.62 ton/year.

Nowadays construction of similar AISL is being carried out at other refineries of the company. Tanks of the petrol park of the refinery will be equipped with pontoons and nitrogen cushions, and floating lid in raw Stock Park in new tank batteries and fuel-loading tanks for reduction of emissions of hydrocarbons into the atmosphere. All tanks are equipped with reflective discs. Collection efficiency of hydrocarbon emissions is from 95 to 99 %

Associated petroleum gas recovery

We try to minimize volume of associated petroleum gas (APG) combustion. Level of gas recovery was 85 % in 2017 (86 % in 2016). Full recovery of associated petroleum gas by means of its processing at gas processing plants is observed at many deposits, using APG for electricity production at gas-fired plants and for industrial requirements of own fields. Commercial gas is also supplied to the local population. APG is still regularly burned at several deposits, however, the organizations have approved programs for APG development and refining, according to which regular combustion of APG will be reduced to zero by means of construction on APG preparation, gas engine generator plants, etc. Level of gas recovery is expected at level 95 % in the coming years.

The company does not reinject APG in site.

Construction of infrastructure and modern facilities on APG recovery allows full-scale development of profitable assets and significantly reduction of greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere.

The average ratio of burned gas to total production of raw hydrocarbons raw in oil equivalent by Group of companies KMG was 11 ton per thousand ton of raw hydrocarbons production in 2016, average IOGP – 12.9.

The company submitted the first reporting on total APG flaring volumes for 2016 as part of the World Bank’s global initiative on termination of regular APG flaring by 2030 in the first quarter of 2017.

Case history

Commissioning of unit on preparation of associated petroleum gas.

The unit on preparation of associated petroleum gas of group of deposits Prorvinskaya was commissioned in 2017 with capacity – 150 mln m3 per year. The unit is intended for APG recovery. Gas processing technology – LO-CAT from Merichem, applied on the Unit, is environmentally safe and provides high efficiency of hydrogen sulphide removal. The whole process of gas preparation is fully automated and provides several degrees of protection against emergency situations. Commercial gas, stable gas condensate – 4.1 thousand ton and sulfur pellets – 2.7 thousand ton will be produced annually on the Unit.

Dynamics of pollutant emissions, mln m3